Scott, K., Tucker, D. and McGeehin, J., 2003, Holocene History of Mount Baker volcano; North Cascades: XVI INQUA Congress Program with Abstracts, p. 51
Holocene History of Mount Baker volcano; North Cascades
Following edifice completion by 11,000 14C years BP, Mount Baker was the site of numerous eruptions, mainly hydrovolcanic, and flank collapses. Intensely altered and saturated collapses mobilized to clay-rich (cohesive) lahars that have traveled as far as the Puget Lowland. All significant collapses are from the southeast half of the volcano, a sector clockwise from summit azimuth N 30 E to S 50 W. The main Holocene events: Schreibers Meadow cinder cone formed at the base of the volcano (8,800 BP), yielding a widespread scoria, tephra SC, and a lava flow, followed by flank collapse of the sector upslope from the cinder cone (8,500 BP). The Mazama Park eruptive period (5,600-5,900 BP) includes a cluster of collapses and eruptions previously dated in a range of 4,300-6,700 BP. Collapse occurred initially in Park Creek on the east and the Middle Fork Nooksack River on the southwest, the latter producing the largest Holocene lahar extending over 44 km. Then, phreatomagmatic eruption produced lithic tephra OP and a synchronous collapse from the site of modern Sherman Crater, the active 0.5-km-wide vent below and south of the summit that traveled over 33 km. Finally, magmatic eruption produced juvenile tephra BA, extending at least 30 km northeast. We interpret the events as a single intrusive cycle, with the Park Creek and Middle Fork collapses resulting from edifice destabilization from intrusion, followed after a discrete but probably short interval (indicated by erosional stratigraphy and lahar travel times) by sequential phreatomagmatic and magmatic eruptions, triggered by unloading of the associated collapse. The Sherman Crater hydrovolcanic eruptive period (AD 1843 to present), began with a phreatomagmatic eruption forming the modern crater and lithic tephra YP. Collapse (AD 1845-1847) of the crater rim produced a lahar inundating the Baker River valley. Hydrovolcanic activity, including a tenfold increase in heat flow in 1975, continues. In AD 1890-1891, collapse from Lava Divide produced a debris avalanche/lahar extending 10.5 km; in 1927, probable seismogenic collapse of 1.6 km of Deming Glacier formed a debris flow that ran out over 10 km.